Tamino proposed an optimal solution to the problem not long ago. Then RomanM wrote about a "more optimal" method, which he later revised in his Plan C post.

The problem both Tamino and RomanM took on involves finding an offset for each station-month (

**μ**

_{i}for station

**i**.) Once you find the right offsets, you can add each temperature series to their corresponding offsets in order to "normalize" the stations, so to speak. Then you can average out the "normalized" series.

I believe that's the right problem to solve. My approach to solving it was different, nonetheless, and rather simple, in my view. The approach is already implemented and shipped with GHCN Processor 1.0. You can browse the source code of the implementation in CVS. (You need to pass a

**-scm olem**option to the tool in order to use the method, otherwise it just uses a simple "temperature anomaly" method.)

Let's take as a given that you can always find a difference or delta between two temperature stations. Between stations

**i**and

**j**, let's call the difference

**ΔT**.

_{i,j}Note that the difference between offsets

**μ**and

_{i}**μ**is equal to

_{j}**-ΔT**. That's obvious enough, isn't it? The solution is easier to explain with an example. Let's take a grid cell with only 3 stations. The following two equations hold for such a set of stations:

_{i,j}

(1) μ_{0} - μ_{1} = -ΔT_{0,1}

(2) μ_{0} - μ_{2} = -ΔT_{0,2}

Additionally, the sum of all offsets should be zero. This way, if you have data from all stations in a given year, the sum of the "normalized" measurements will be the same as the sum of the original absolute measurements. Hence, we have a third equation:

(3) μ_{0} + μ_{1} + μ_{2} = 0

Equations

**1**,

**2**and

**3**are nothing more than a system of linear equations: 3 equations with 3 variables. It's actually simpler that a typical system of linear equations. Notice that if you simply add the equations, you can easily solve for μ

_{0}:

μ_{0} = -(ΔT_{0,1} + ΔT_{0,2}) / 3

Once you have

**μ**, you can easily solve for

_{0}**μ**(with equation

_{1}**1**) and

**μ**(with equation

_{2}**2**).

**Unbiasing**

You might have noticed that there's one more equation we could have used: one involving

**μ**and

_{1}**μ**. In fact, a valid alternative system of 3 equations is the following:

_{2}

(1) μ_{1} - μ_{2} = -ΔT_{1,2}

(2) μ_{1} - μ_{0} = -ΔT_{1,0}

(3) μ_{0} + μ_{1} + μ_{2} = 0

While both equation systems are valid, the first equation system was biased toward station

**0**, whereas the second equation system is biased toward station

**1**. If you only solve one system of

**n**equations biased toward station

**i**, the solution is similar to the

*reference station method*(Hansen & Lebedeff 1987.) The main limitation of this method is that it's dependent on the reliability of a single station: the reference station.

The full algorithm solves

**n**systems of

**n**equations each, with station

**i**(from

**0**to

**n-1**) being the reference station in each case. Then it averages out the offsets that result from solving each of the equation systems. A straight average would be completely unbiased. The implementation uses a weighted average, where the weight of a reference station is the number of years with available data. The solution is thus biased, but only to the extent that some stations have more complete data than other stations.

**Simulation**

I thought that was a sound plan, but I wondered if it worked in practice. I wrote a simulation to find out.

The simulation consists of 15 stations with a common non-linear trend, and some common noise. On top of that, each station has noise and seasonality unique to it. Stations start out with complete data, and we calculate a "expected" temperature series with these data. Then we remove data points at random from each station – anywhere from 0% to 80% of them. We then apply a station combination algorithm and come up with a "estimated" temperature series. I have uploaded the source code of the simulation into CVS, where you will find all other details.

Let's start by evaluating how a simple "temperature anomaly" method does with this simulation. I'm interested in how well it predicts the absolute temperature measurements, not just the anomalies. It's not too bad. A linear regression of "expected" vs. "estimated" temperatures has a correlation coefficient R

^{2}of 0.987, with a slope of 0.99. Ideally, the slope should be 1. There's also an intercept of -0.251. This should ideally be zero.

Now let's see how the linear equation-based method does. The correlation coefficient R

^{2}is 0.997 in this case. The slope is basically 1, and the intercept is basically zero. It's nearly an ideal solution.

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